Pre-2022 field fortifications in Russian-occupied Ukraine
Satellite imagery shows where Russian forces are revisiting old defensive positions
In Ukraine, many of the older defensive lines built during fighting between 2014 and 2022 (by both Russian and Ukrainian forces) are now inside Russian-occupied territory. An interactive map showing many of these sites is available here.
A few important notes on this map of fortifications in eastern Ukraine from 2014-2022:
First, this data reflects fortifications (trenches, barriers, and revetments) that were built before 2022 and are now within territory occupied by Russian forces. This includes several years-old Ukrainian positions. Second, Russian forces have not maintained or expanded most of these positions which dramatically reduces their usefulness when compared to newer defenses. Third, this data is not exhaustive and there may be defenses not reflected on the map.
Nature has overtaken many of the older defensive lines built in eastern Ukraine between 2014 and 2022. Some older fortifications might be in better shape, but are still poorly positioned for the current front line. In several instances, new fortifications constructed by Russian forces intersect older defensive lines. In other areas, older fortifications have been expanded and upgraded since Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022.